A Crossing of the St. Louis Southwestern Railway and the International & Great Northern Railway in Jacksonville
Historic Photo, Tower 176 Crossing
Above: The John W Barriger III National Railroad Library supplies this photo taken from the rear platform of Barriger's business car on a trip through east Texas in the late 1930's or early 1940's. The view is west-southwest down the International & Great Northern (I-GN) with the St. Louis Southwestern ("Cotton Belt") Lufkin Branch crossing in the foreground, protected by a swing gate (note the "STOP" sign hanging from the bottom rung). The post at right was the connection for the gate when it was positioned to allow movements on the Cotton Belt. The gate was normally lined against the Cotton Belt; opening it would trigger distant signals to warn approaching trains. Just beyond the diamond is the Patton St. grade crossing. The Texas & New Orleans (T&NO) freight station, served by a spur off the T&NO main line, is visible at far left. The large fill in the distance carried the T&NO over the I-GN, just beyond the camera's view.
When the International Railroad bypassed the original
site of Jacksonville in 1872, the townspeople reacted by relocating the town two
miles east to be on the railroad. A year later, the International merged with
the Houston & Great Northern Railroad to form the International & Great Northern
(I-GN) Railroad. By the end of 1873, the combined railroad operated three major
rail segments: Longview to Palestine via Jacksonville, Palestine to
Palestine to Houston. The excellent rail connections provided by the I-GN helped
Jacksonville to grow and become the center of agricultural business in the area, increasing local commerce
and attracting more railroads. The I-GN became part of the Missouri
Pacific (MP) Lines in 1925.
The next town south of Jacksonville was Rusk. In 1875, Rusk was designated as the site for a new penitentiary by the Texas Legislature, leading to increased commercial investment in the area. One of these investments was the founding of the Rusk Transportation Company in 1875 which built a 17-mile wooden tram road from Rusk to Jacksonville, the nearest town served by rail. The wooden rails were a failure, and the Rusk Transportation Company soon entered bankruptcy. The remnants of the tram ended up as the property of the Kansas & Gulf Short Line Railroad in 1881, which used portions of the right-of-way in completing construction of a new railroad between Rusk and Tyler via Jacksonville. Eventually, this rail line became the property of the St. Louis Southwestern Railway (SSW or SLSW), commonly known as the "Cotton Belt". The I-GN and Cotton Belt crossed at grade close to the yards of both railroads near downtown Jacksonville. This crossing was uncontrolled until 1931 when an interlocker was commissioned by the Railroad Commission of Texas (RCT) as Tower 176. Noted Texas railroad historian David Bernstein explained the genesis of the interlocker in an April, 2019 email:
"Tower 176 protected the Cotton Belt - I-GN (MP) crossing at Jacksonville, placed in service September 8, 1931. It was a manual interlocking without an operator, with protection by automatic block signals on the I-GN and an electrically locked gate on the Cotton Belt (normally lined for MP movement). In 1954, Tower 176 was replaced by an automatic interlocking designated Tower 201 which remained in service until the Cotton Belt was abandoned in 1991."
Assigning a new number to an automatic interlocker that
was replacing a manual interlocker was something RCT had not done
previously. By the early 1950's, various manual interlocking towers had been
dismantled at active crossings in favor of automatic interlockers without new
number assignments (e.g. Tower 31.) The reason for
the assignment of a new interlocker number remains unknown.
In 1902, the Texas & New Orleans (T&NO) railroad built through Jacksonville as part of an agreement with the State of Texas to complete a line between Dallas and Beaumont. The T&NO was owned by Southern Pacific (SP) and had become the subsidiary into which most of SP's Texas and Louisiana lines were consolidated. Out of Jacksonville, the T&NO went northwest to Athens and Dallas, and southeast to Nacogdoches and Beaumont. In Jacksonville, the T&NO used trestles to cross over the other two railroads; the I-GN crossing was west of downtown and the Cotton Belt crossing was south of town.
South from Jacksonville, Rusk was becoming an important source of traffic for the Cotton Belt. In addition to various industries established there to take advantage of inexpensive convict labor, the prison itself operated a foundry built to exploit east Texas iron ore. To haul wood and iron ore to the foundry, the state of Texas had built a railroad in 1896 extending five miles west from the prison. Rails were extended further west another five miles in 1906. That year, Thomas M. Campbell, a native of Rusk and a former General Manager of the I-GN, was elected Governor of Texas. It was his idea to extend the Texas State Railroad (TSR) 22 miles further west to Palestine where an I-GN connection could be made. This would create competition for freight rates on inbound materials and outbound foundry products since, at the time, only the Cotton Belt served Rusk. The extension to Palestine was completed in 1909, the same year that the T&NO decided to build a branch into Rusk. Their 8-mile circuitous route to Rusk was known as the "Gallatin Branch", named for a tiny community southeast of Jacksonville where the branch departed the T&NO main line. But only a year later, the prison foundry closed; its charcoal-based furnaces were unable to compete economically with coke-based furnaces elsewhere. In 1917, the prison closed and some of its facilities were converted to the Rusk State Hospital, which became another source of passenger and freight traffic for the three railroads serving Rusk. In 1921, SP leased the TSR from the state of Texas and assigned it to the T&NO.
In 1932, SP gained control of the Cotton Belt but
elected to operate it separately rather than merge it with the T&NO.
The two railroads worked cooperatively for their common owner, and one of
the early changes was the abandonment of T&NO's Gallatin Branch in 1934. The
Cotton Belt line from Jacksonville to Rusk was shorter than T&NO's roundabout
path via Gallatin. A connecting track between the T&NO and Cotton Belt was put in
place at their crossing on the far south side of
Jacksonville, approximately 1.5 miles south of Tower 176. This became known as Jax Junction
which T&NO trains began using
to reach Rusk. On May 31, 1934, the Interstate Commerce Commission approved
T&NO's application to abandon the Gallatin Branch.
Only the former I-GN tracks remain in use in Jacksonville, now owned by Union Pacific. The Cotton Belt tracks survived until abandonment in 1991. The T&NO was abandoned through Jacksonville ten years earlier, although Southern Pacific retained 2.4 miles of former T&NO trackage at that time to continue serving customers via the Cotton Belt tracks. By then, both railroads had long been absorbed into SP.
Tower 176 Site
(Google Street View
Above: This is the Patton St. crossing at the site of Tower 176. The image faces southeast toward the swing gate, which would have been to the left of where the crossing signal now stands. Below: Sheet 2 of the 1931 Sanborn Map of Jacksonville has been annotated to show the location of Tower 176 with respect to the Cotton Belt Depot (passenger and freight) and the T&NO Freight Station. The T&NO tracks (red) to the freight station came off the main line well south of the T&NO's trestle over the I-GN (off image to left), and ran north before curving east to the reach the depot.
Satellite Image, Tower 176 Location
Above: Facing southeast, the remnants of the Cotton Belt right-of-way are still visible parallel to Patton St. -- note the warehouse aligned to the ROW. The Barriger photo was taken facing W-SW on the I-GN tracks at the Tower 176 gate. The tracks serving the T&NO freight depot came in from the lower right. The T&NO spur to the depot came off the T&NO main line south of their trestle over the I-GN (off image to the right) and went north before curving to the east to the freight station. Below: This 1926 T&NO Beaumont Division track chart of Jacksonville shows the industry and exchange tracks near downtown Jacksonville. While the I-GN is labeled, the Cotton Belt is not (it is probably the small diagonal dashed line at the top of the image.) The Cotton Belt didn't need to be labeled because there was no T&NO exchange track with the Cotton Belt; the map preceded the construction of the T&NO/SSW connector at Jax Junction by eight years. (Map courtesy of T&NO Archives)
Location Map, Tower 176
Above: Jax Junction is the crossing in the lower right corner of the image. The connecting track was located between the two railroads north of the Jax Junction trestle, permitting southbound T&NO-to-SSW movements and northbound SSW-to-T&NO movements. Below: This 1947 image from historicaerials.com shows the T&NO/SSW connecting track at Jax Junction.
Google Street View images
Abutments for the Cotton Belt bridge over US175 (above) survived abandonment on the north side of town. On the south side (below), one abutment for the T&NO trestle over the Cotton Belt at Jax Junction survived to be repurposed as a signpost.
Above: A southbound MP freight goes under the T&NO bridge at Jacksonville in April 1969. (Center for Railroad Photography & Art, J. Parker Lamb photo, hat tip Chino Chapa) Below: A more recent photo of the same location as above, with the T&NO bridge long gone. (Jim King photo)